Free computer code on screen

Lightning Web Components Introduction | Comprehensive Guide

Lightning Web Components (LWC) represent a novel framework tailored for constructing UI components within Salesforce applications. These components harness standard web languages such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, enabling the development of reusable elements.

Advantages of LWC

  • Enhanced performance when compared to Aura components
  • Utilizes contemporary web standards such as ES Modules
  • Simple for web developers to construct using their current skill set
  • Components function seamlessly across both desktop and mobile environments

Organizing a Basic LWC

An LWC encompasses a directory containing these essential files:

  • Component JavaScript file: Holds the logic and methods for the component
  • HTML template: Defines the component markup using HTML alongside LWC directives
  • CSS file (optional): Used for styling the component
  • js-meta.xml: Declares metadata such as API version and supported targets

Here’s an example of a component structure: The JS file encompasses the component’s logic. Here’s an illustration:

// greetingComponent.js
import { LightningElement } from 'lwc';
export default class GreetingComponent extends LightningElement {
 // Component logic

This snippet imports LightningElement and defines the GreetingComponent class, extending it.

The JavaScript manages tasks such as:

  • Importing necessary libraries and dependencies
  • Defining the component class, demonstrated previously
  • Incorporating properties and methods
  • Invoking Apex methods
<!-- greetingComponent.html -->
 <p>Hello World!</p>

This entails a basic template featuring a <p> tag. The HTML file is responsible for:

  • Dеfining thе componеnt UI structurе
  • Adding HTML еlеmеnts and Lightning wеb componеnt
  • Assigning event handlers, such as onclick
/* greetingComponent.css */
.greeting {
 font-size: 20px;
 font-weight: bold;
 color: blue;

The CSS file enables component styling. For instance, in greetingComponent.css, the <p> element is styled using the greeting class.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<LightningComponentBundle xmlns="">

The .xml metadata file specifies crucial details such as:

  • apiVersion: The Salesforce API version associated with the component
  • isExposed: Determines if the component is accessible by other components
  • targets: Indicates where the component can be employed, such as app pages or record pages
  • These details aid the platform in comprehending the correct deployment and rendering methods for the component.

Connecting LWC with Apex

Lightning Web Components (LWCs) seamlessly integrate with Apex controllers to retrieve, process, and handle Salesforce data. The “@wire” decorator facilitates the invocation of an Apex method and management of the response. For instance:

// Component JS file
import { LightningElement, wire } from 'lwc';
import getAccountList from '@salesforce/apex/AccountController.getAccounts';
export default class AccountList extends LightningElement {
     // Additional logic

This retrieves account data from Apex and stores it within the component’s ‘accounts’ property.

Wrapping Up

Lightning Web Components offer a contemporary, standards-based approach to constructing Salesforce UIs. LWCs provide improved performance, capitalize on web languages like HTML and JavaScript, and simplify the development of responsive, reusable components. With Salesforce’s continued endorsement of LWC for custom development, it’s imperative for developers to incorporate LWC skills into their skill set. Understanding Salesforce’s Lightning Web Components is pivotal in this context.